Violence, including bullying and other types of behaviors, has seen increased political and scientific attention over the past years. However, this behavior among younglings and schools has declined over the past decade; the abuse of children by other children in school settings remains as one of the major issues of concern among adults and communities. In response, a number of intervention programs have been developed to help reduce the amount of bullying and violence in schools. Results suggested a significant effect for anti-bullying programs. However, as expected, some of the results seemed to fall under some sort of publication bias and did not meet the necessary objectives for practical significance. Publication bias (or the “file drawer effect”) occurs when articles with statistical significance are selected for publication more often than are articles that do not obtain significance (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1991).
On my first part I talked about the misconception people have about bullies, and before slightly touching the prevention programs against bullying in schools I would like to continue with some important facts about this topic.
Bullies are often seen as someone who repeatedly attacks another individual who is completely defenseless and not fight back. Ross (2002) summarized a study done in Finland; these people during adolescent years are likely to be at risk of depression and low self-esteem. However, is this characteristic preventable in early years? Tremablay & Nagic (2005) stated a co-relation in the behavior and how it is close to impossible to prevent how a bully is born: For children it is normal to act like a bully. Toddlers typically hit or kick their mothers and pinch and bite other toddlers and older children call each other derogatory words otherwise known as name-calling; they often criticize each other’s personal traits and even curse at their friends. As these actions seem to be bullying, no single act defines a bully. Berger (2007) noted that to be bullying, harmful actions are repeated and victims are defenseless.
Bullying has been studied for many years in many countries defining it as the dehumanizing experience that manifests itself in the form of rumors, name-calling, physical or psychological abuse, social exclusion and many other degrading forms. However, as every person is different, bullies are so too. In short, a bully is someone who thinks possesses power beyond comprehension, where the need to “show-off” its dominance against classmates, co-workers, or anyone close becomes an obligation. Many argue that bullies lack of self confidence but Allen (2006) argues that scientists have been battling with the question aggression and self-esteem, and to simplify everything: they link the two. However, she made an extensive research on self-esteem and its true meaning.
Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2004) mentioned self-esteem is constantly viewed as a communal problem for Americans, who tend to worry that lack or insufficient self-esteem leads to a life with various undesirable behaviors. Prof. Baumeister (1996) challenged that bullies in fact, hold favorable and perhaps inflated views of themselves. He also reviewed several empirical studies on how murderers and rapists respond to self-defining statements, he pointed out that these individuals firmly believe they are superior, not inferior. However, here I would like to argue that when answering these type questions people tend to go for what they think is the right answer and/or provide with information they would like to read and believe about themselves.
In today’s world we are obligated to push our limits due to the need of developing special abilities that will prepared us for the challenges of work and life. These abilities also known as the 21st Century skills will not enable young and adults to be academically competitive in their fields, but also increased the level of awareness in their community, atmosphere, and everyday activities. I have identified what I believe are critical skills that if mastered will equip people with the necessary tools to understand their strengths and weaknesses.
However, this skills are hard to identify due to the high pressured path we are putting are children in. For example, today’s children are spoiled and are led to believe that they can do anything they want. But, is it really this kind of mentality we want to teach them?
Pretty much everyone knows already that I am doing my master's at Columbia University, but few of you know how difficult it was to be accepted at an IVY League University. On my previous post, I talked about my fears and doubts of staying in New York, I didn't write or explained what made me change my mind (will do on another post), but for the sake of it, let's say Columbia was one of the major reasons for not to leave.
Columbia University in the City of New York, top #8 in the world, USA colonial university, known for it's intense curriculum and high quality programs in Law, Business, Psychology, Journalism, Politics etc.
Everyday motivation from personal experiences. Self-motivated and ambitious fighting for glory and greatness.